Elena-Lia Spoială, Aurica Rugină


Primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs) represent an increasing number of syndromes which include over 400 inborn errors of immunity. These syndromes should be suspected in children with recurrent respiratory infections, failure to thrive, poor response to prolonged use of antibiotics, persistent thrush or skin abscesses, or family history of PIDs. Severe gingivitis, aggressive forms or early-onset periodontitis, recurrent and/or persistent oral ulcers, gingivostomatitis or oral candidiasis that do not respond to treatment and various types of dental anomalies are among the most common oral manifestations associated with PIDs. The aim of this paper is to review the literature and identify the oral manifestations in children with PIDs. The association between PIDs and oral manifestations require a multidisciplinary approach for diagnosis and management. Medical professionals should be aware that particular oral features may reveal an underlying defect of immunity or complicate the management of PIDs patients

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