Alexandru Andrei Iliescu, Paula Perlea, Kamel Earar
Periodontal tissues are reactive to fluctuation of female sex hormones since they are equipped with estrogen receptors and participate in the hormones turnover. Estrogens and progestins mostly regulate in periodontal tissues the keratinocytes and fibroblasts. The gingival fibroblast ERβ receptor was proved both in cell nucleus and mitochondria. The main periopathogens Porphyromonas, Porphyromonas, and Treponema denticola have the ability to metabolize both estrogens and progesterone. Some climacteric complaints such as dry mouth and burning mouth are developing some years later the hormone deficiency is installed. Though modern oral contraceptives contain reduced estrogen and progestin and are no longer considered a risk factor for periodontal inflammation, it is recommended that their use has to be stipulated in the medical history of each woman.