Lorena Mihaela Manole, Laura Otilia Boca, Mădălina Andreea Donos, Ioana Vasiliu, Otilia Elena Frăsinariu, Laura Mihaela Trandafir
Objective: Obesity is an increasingly prevalent nutritional disorder in children worldwide. The literature mentions a wide number of skin conditions associated with obesity, such as striae, acanthosis nigricans, psoriasis, intertrigo, acrochordons, plantar hyperkeratosis, lymphedema, keratosis pilaris, adiposis dolorosa, hidradenitis suppurativa, as well as skin infections, such as tinea cruris, folliculitis, candidiasis, furunculosis and erythrasma. The present study is aiming to be an review of studies, a description of the most frequent obesity-associated dermatological complications in children and an understanding of the evidence and research describing the association between childhood obesity and skin diseases. Materials and method: This review summarizes the most relevant published studies (original papers and reviews) in the scientific literature that have been identified and critically analyzed with the electronic international indexed databases PubMed, Medline and Web of Science. The papers were searched with the following keywords: cutaneous manifestations, skin, pediatric, obesity, acanthosis nigricans, psoriasis. Results: The articles were studied and analyzed to be according to the subject.The cutaneous manifestations in children with obesity can be classified into 3 groups: modifications in skin physiology, skin changes associated with obesity and obesity-related skin disorders. Discussions: Obese pediatric patients have a variety of skin physiologic modifications, including the following: excessive sweating and dry skin, alteration of collagen structure and function, physiological folds, heat intolerance and localized rash in area of friction. The skin disorders associated with obesity are: Acanthosis nigricans, Acrochordons or fibroepitheliomas, Striae, Plantar hyperkeratosis. In the category skin disorders exacerbated, obesity is a well-established risk factor for psoriasis development, as stressed out by many studies. For obese patients with a variety of risk factors, infections (for example, intertrigo) are the most frequent complications. Acne is a chronic inflammatory skin condition with numerous psychosocial implications.
Conclusions: The prevalence of obesity and its associated comorbidities are rising in the population. Although the majority of the skin lesions linked to obesity have unknown causes, it has been found that obese children have a higher prevalence of these lesions. Understanding the significance of obesity and the risk factors associated with it may improve with early diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of its serious repercussions.