Ancuța Goriuc, Ioana Mârțu, Liliana Foia, Carina Balcoș, Adina Armencia, Ionuț Luchian, Otilia Frăsinariu, Raluca Jipu
Because it is well known that T cells are a heterogeneous population, and a balance between functionally of different T cell subsets is crucial in immune regulation, a series of studies have attempted to associate an impaired balance between each T cell subset and periodontal disease progression. This review aims is to give a perspective on the importance of Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg balance in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease, considering that the activity of this disease is determined by a complex interaction between the immune system and periodontal pathogens. Because Treg cells modulate both innate and adaptive immunity, it may be helpful to use therapeutic strategies which apply the immunosuppressive abilities of Treg cells in periodontal disease. The re-examination of existing periodontal literature and further studies in the light of these new discoveries may help explain how the inflammatory response results in damage to the periodontium while generally failing to control the pathogens. This knowledge would be essential in order to develop interventional strategies to protect and minimize the destructive aspects of the periodontal host response.