RISK FACTORS FOR PERIODONTAL DISEASE IN DIABETIC PATIENTS

Crînguta Paraschiv, Irina Esanu, Cristina Maria Gavrilescu, Rodica Ghiuru,
Dragos Munteanu, Paloma Manea

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Periodontal disease is one of the most widespread chronic illnesses with a huge negative impact on the quality of life. Its relationship with other age-related systemic diseases including diabetes has been increasingly discussed, those conditions being associated with increased inflammation markers and sharing common risk factors such as age, smoking, obesity, stress, physical inactivity, environmental factors, metabolic syndrome, systemic medication and nutritional factors. Objective: The aim of the study was to assess whether diabetes can be considered as an independent risk factor for periodontal disease. Methods: We conducted a prospective study on 117 patients divided in two groups, diabetics and non-diabetics. The diagnosis of various forms of periodontal disease was based on anamnesis, clinical and dental evaluation and laboratory signs. Results: The results of the present study demonstrated that periodontal disease is more frequent and pronounced in diabetic patients than in controls (95.83% vs. 37.77%) especially in type 2 diabetes, over 45 years age group, males from rural environment. However, we noted that the presence of smoking, obesity and poor oral hygiene have increased the prevalence of periodontal disease predominantly in non-diabetic participants which supports the role of diabetes as an independent risk factor. Conclusion: The diabetic patients must be informed on the risk of periodontal disease and the clinician should encourage them to improve their oral health and to schedule regular visits to the dentist as an important component of their overall diabetes management.  

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